The OSI model is like the blueprint of communication in computer networks. It stands for Open Systems Interconnection and is a conceptual framework that standardizes the functions of a telecommunication or computing system into seven abstraction layers. These layers, from bottom to top, are Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and Application.

Each layer serves a specific purpose, and together they ensure that different systems can communicate seamlessly. It's like a well-organized team, with each player having a distinct role but working towards a common goal.

In the table below, we will break down each OSI layer, it's basic activity and and some of their attack vectors.

OSI LAYER Activity Attack Vector
7. Application -User Interface & Software Application
-Web Browsing, Email, HTTP,
-Malware Injection
-Phishing Attacks
-Application Level DDoS
6. Presentation -Data Encryption & Decryption
-Data Compression & Expansion
-Viewing Compressed Files
-Data Encoding/Decoding
-Malicious Code Injection
-Format String Attacks
5. Session -Establishes, Manages & Terminates
-Manages Session State
-Video Conferencing
-Session Hijacking
-Brute Force Attacks
-Session Fixation Attacks
4. Transport -Ensures end-to-end Data Delivery
-TCP & UDP Protocols
-Error Correction
-MITM Attacks
-SYN/ACK Flooding
-TCP/IP Vulnerabilities
3. Network -Routing & Addressing
-IPV4, IPV6 & Routing Protocols
-Subnet Configuration
-IP Spoofing
-Routing Table
-DDos Attack
2. Data Link -Frames & Error Detection/Correction
-Wi-Fi & Bridging
-MAC Spoofing
-ARP Spoofing
-VLAN Hopping
1. Physical -Physical Medium & Electrical Signaling
-Ethernet Cables, Fiber Optics etc.
-Radio Waves In Wireless Links
-Physical Tampering